pure essential oils bulk

  • OEM Custom Package Natural Macrocephalae Rhizoma oil

    OEM Custom Package Natural Macrocephalae Rhizoma oil

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) holds that deficiency of spleen-Qi is the major pathogenesis of chemotherapy-induced diarrhea (CID). Herb pair of Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz. (AM) and Panax ginseng C. A. Mey. (PG) has good effects of supplementing Qi and strengthening spleen. Aim of the study To investigate therapeutic effects and mechanism of Atractylodes macrocephala essential oil (AMO) and Panax ginseng total saponins (PGS) alone and in combination ...
  • 100% Pure Natural Eucommiae Foliuml Oil Essential Oil For Skin Care

    100% Pure Natural Eucommiae Foliuml Oil Essential Oil For Skin Care

    Eucommia ulmoides (EU) (commonly called “Du Zhong” in Chinese language) belong to the family of Eucommiaceae, a genus of the small tree native to Central China [1]. This plant is widely cultivated in China on a large scale because of its medicinal importance. About 112 compounds have been isolated from EU which include lignans, iridoids, phenolics, steroids, and other compounds. Complementary herbs formula of this plant (such as delicious tea) has shown some medicinal properties. The leaf of EU has higher activity related to cortex, flower, and fruit [23]. The leaves of EU have been reported to enhance bones strength and body muscles [4], thus leading to longevity and promoting fertility in humans [5]. Delicious tea formula made from the leaf of EU was reported to reduce fattiness and enhance energy metabolism. Flavonoid compounds (such as rutin, chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid, and caffeic acid) have been reported to exhibit antioxidants activity in the leaves of EU [6].

    Although there has been enough literature on phytochemical properties of EU, few studies however existed on the pharmacological properties of the various compounds extracted from the barks, seeds, stems, and leaves of EU. This review paper will elucidate detailed information regarding different compounds extracted from the various parts (barks, seeds, stem, and leaf) of EU and the prospective uses of these compounds in health-promoting properties with scientific lines of evidence and thus provide a reference material for the application of EU.

  • Pure Natural Houttuynia cordata oil Houttuynia Cordata Oil Lchthammolum Oil

    Pure Natural Houttuynia cordata oil Houttuynia Cordata Oil Lchthammolum Oil

    In most of the developing countries, 70-95% of the population rely on traditional medicines for primary health-care and out of these 85% of people use plants or their extracts as the active substance.[1] The search for new biologically active compounds from plants usually depends on the specific ethnic and folk information obtained from local practitioners and is still regarded as an important source for drug discovery. In India, approximately 2000 drugs are of plant origin.[2] In view of the widespread interest on using medicinal plants, the present review on Houttuynia cordata Thunb. provides up-to-date information with reference to botanical, commercial, ethnopharmacological, phytochemical and pharmacological studies that appears in the literature. H. cordata Thunb. belongs to the family Saururaceae and is commonly known as Chinese lizard tail. It is a perennial herb with stoloniferous rhizome having two distinct chemotypes.[3,4] The Chinese chemotype of the species is found in wild and semi-wild conditions in the North-East of India from April to September.[5,6,7H. cordata is available in India, especially in Brahmaputra valley of Assam and is utilized by various tribes of Assam in the form of vegetable as well as in various medicinal purposes traditionally.

  • 100% PureArctium lappa oil Manufacturer – Natural Lime Arctium lappa oil with Quality Assurance Certificates

    100% PureArctium lappa oil Manufacturer – Natural Lime Arctium lappa oil with Quality Assurance Certificates

    Health Benefits

    Burdock root is often eaten, yet, can also be dried and steeped into tea. It works well as a source of inulin, a prebiotic fiber that aids digestion and improves gut health. Additionally, this root contains flavonoids (plant nutrients), phytochemicals, and antioxidants that are known to have health benefits. 

    In addition, burdock root can provide other benefits like:

    Reduce Chronic Inflammation

    Burdock root contains a number of antioxidants, such as quercetin, phenolic acids, and luteolin, which can help protect your cells from free radicals. These antioxidants help reduce inflammation throughout the body.

    Health Risks

    Burdock root is considered safe to eat or drink as tea. However, this plant closely resembles belladonna nightshade plants, which are toxic. It’s recommended to only buy burdock root from trusted sellers and to refrain from collecting it on your own. Additionally, there is minimal information on its effects in children or pregnant women. Talk with your doctor before using burdock root with children or if you are pregnant.

    Here are some other possible health risks to consider if using burdock root:

    Increased Dehydration

    Burdock root acts like a natural diuretic, which can lead to dehydration. If you take water pills or other diuretics, you should not take burdock root. If you take these medications, it is important to be aware of other drugs, herbs, and ingredients that may lead to dehydration.

    Allergic Reaction

    If you are sensitive or have a history of allergic reactions to daisies, ragweed, or chrysanthemums, you are at increased risk for an allergic reaction to burdock root.


  • 100% Pure Natural Organic Magnoliae Officmalis Cortex Oil Essential Oil For Skin Care

    100% Pure Natural Organic Magnoliae Officmalis Cortex Oil Essential Oil For Skin Care

    Hou Po’s fragrance is immediately bitter and sharply pungent then gradually opens with a deep, syrupy sweetness and warmth.

    Hou Po’s affinity is to the Earth and Metal elements where it’s bitter warmth acts strongly to descend Qi and dry dampness. Because of these qualities, it is used in Chinese medicine to relieve stagnation and accumulation in the digestive tract as well as coughing and wheezing due to phlegm obstructing the lungs.

    Magnolia Officinials is a deciduous tree native to the mountains and valleys of Sichuan, Hubei and other provinces of China. The highly aromatic bark used in traditional Chinese medicine is stripped from the stems, branches and roots Collected during April to June. The thick, smooth bark, heavy with oil, has a purplish color on the inner side with a crystal like sheen.

    Practitioners may consider combining Hou Po with Qing Pi essential oil as a top note compliment in blends aimed at breaking up accumulations.

  • Wholesale bulk price 100% Pure AsariRadix Et Rhizoma oil Relax Aromatherapy Eucalyptus globulus

    Wholesale bulk price 100% Pure AsariRadix Et Rhizoma oil Relax Aromatherapy Eucalyptus globulus

    Animal and in vitro studies have investigated the potential antifungal, anti-inflammatory, and cardiovascular effects of sassafras and its components. However, clinical trials are lacking, and sassafras is not considered safe for use. Safrole, the main constituent of sassafras root bark and oil, has been banned by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), including for use as a flavoring or fragrance, and should not be used internally or externally, as it is potentially carcinogenic. Safrole has been used in the illegal production of 3,4-methylene-dioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), also known by the street names “ecstasy” or “Molly,” and the sale of safrole and sassafras oil is monitored by the US Drug Enforcement Administration

  • Wholesale bulk price 100% Pure Stellariae Radix essential oil (new) Relax Aromatherapy Eucalyptus globulus

    Wholesale bulk price 100% Pure Stellariae Radix essential oil (new) Relax Aromatherapy Eucalyptus globulus

    The Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2020 edition) requires that the methanol extract of YCH should not be less than 20.0% [2], with no other quality evaluation indicators specified. The results of this study show that the contents of the methanol extracts of the wild and cultivated samples both met the pharmacopoeia standard, and there was no significant difference among them. Therefore, there was no apparent quality difference between wild and cultivated samples, according to that index. However, the contents of total sterols and total flavonoids in the wild samples were significantly higher than those in the cultivated samples. Further metabolomic analysis revealed abundant metabolite diversity between the wild and cultivated samples. Additionally, 97 significantly different metabolites were screened out, which are listed in the Supplementary Table S2. Among these significantly different metabolites are β-sitosterol (ID is M397T42) and quercetin derivatives (M447T204_2), which have been reported to be active ingredients. Previously unreported constituents, such as trigonelline (M138T291_2), betaine (M118T277_2), fustin (M269T36), rotenone (M241T189), arctiin (M557T165) and loganic acid (M399T284_2), were also included among the differential metabolites. These components play various roles in anti-oxidation, anti-inflammatory, scavenging free radicals, anti-cancer and treating atherosclerosis and, therefore, might constitute putative novel active components in YCH. The content of active ingredients determines the efficacy and quality of the medicinal materials [7]. In summary, methanol extract as the only YCH quality evaluation index has some limitations, and more specific quality markers need to be further explored. There were significant differences in total sterols, total flavonoids and the contents of many other differential metabolites between the wild and cultivated YCH; so, there were potentially some quality differences between them. At the same time, the newly discovered potential active ingredients in YCH might have an important reference value for the study of the functional basis of YCH and the further development of YCH resources.

    The importance of genuine medicinal materials has long been recognized in the specific region of origin for producing Chinese herbal medicines of excellent quality [8]. High quality is an essential attribute of genuine medicinal materials, and habitat is an important factor affecting the quality of such materials. Ever since YCH began to be used as medicine, it has long been dominated by wild YCH. Following the successful introduction and domestication of YCH in Ningxia in the 1980s, the source of Yinchaihu medicinal materials gradually shifted from wild to cultivated YCH. According to a previous investigation into YCH sources [9] and the field investigation of our research group, there are significant differences in the distribution areas of the cultivated and wild medicinal materials. The wild YCH is mainly distributed in the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region of the Shaanxi Province, adjacent to the arid zone of Inner Mongolia and central Ningxia. In particular, the desert steppe in these areas is the most suitable habitat for YCH growth. In contrast, the cultivated YCH is mainly distributed to the south of the wild distribution area, such as Tongxin County (Cultivated I) and its surrounding areas, which has become the largest cultivation and production base in China, and Pengyang County (Cultivated II), which is located in a more southern area and is another producing area for cultivated YCH. Moreover, the habitats of the above two cultivated areas are not desert steppe. Therefore, in addition to the mode of production, there are also significant differences in the habitat of the wild and cultivated YCH. Habitat is an important factor affecting the quality of herbal medicinal materials. Different habitats will affect the formation and accumulation of secondary metabolites in the plants, thereby affecting the quality of medicinal products [10,11]. Therefore, the significant differences in the contents of total flavonoids and total sterols and the expression of the 53 metabolites that we found in this study might be the result of field management and habitat differences.
    One of the main ways that the environment influences the quality of medicinal materials is by exerting stress on the source plants. Moderate environmental stress tends to stimulate the accumulation of secondary metabolites [12,13]. The growth/differentiation balance hypothesis states that, when nutrients are in sufficient supply, plants primarily grow, whereas when nutrients are deficient, plants mainly differentiate and produce more secondary metabolites [14]. Drought stress caused by water deficiency is the main environmental stress faced by plants in arid areas. In this study, the water condition of the cultivated YCH is more abundant, with annual precipitation levels significantly higher than those for the wild YCH (water supply for Cultivated I was about 2 times that of Wild; Cultivated II was about 3.5 times that of Wild). In addition, the soil in the wild environment is sandy soil, but the soil in the farmland is clay soil. Compared with clay, sandy soil has a poor water retention capacity and is more likely to aggravate drought stress. At the same time, the cultivation process was often accompanied by watering, so the degree of drought stress was low. Wild YCH grows in harsh natural arid habitats, and therefore it may suffer more serious drought stress.
    Osmoregulation is an important physiological mechanism by which plants cope with drought stress, and alkaloids are important osmotic regulators in higher plants [15]. Betaines are water-soluble alkaloid quaternary ammonium compounds and can act as osmoprotectants. Drought stress can reduce the osmotic potential of cells, while osmoprotectants preserve and maintain the structure and integrity of biological macromolecules, and effectively alleviate the damage caused by drought stress to plants [16]. For example, under drought stress, the betaine content of sugar beet and Lycium barbarum increased significantly [17,18]. Trigonelline is a regulator of cell growth, and under drought stress, it can extend the length of the plant cell cycle, inhibit cell growth and lead to cell volume shrinkage. The relative increase in solute concentration in the cell enables the plant to achieve osmotic regulation and enhance its ability to resist drought stress [19]. JIA X [20] found that, with an increase in drought stress, Astragalus membranaceus (a source of traditional Chinese medicine) produced more trigonelline, which acts to regulate osmotic potential and improve the ability to resist drought stress. Flavonoids have also been shown to play an important role in plant resistance to drought stress [21,22]. A large number of studies have confirmed that moderate drought stress was conducive to the accumulation of flavonoids. Lang Duo-Yong et al. [23] compared the effects of drought stress on YCH by controlling water-holding capacity in the field. It was found that drought stress inhibited the growth of roots to a certain extent, but in moderate and severe drought stress (40% field water holding capacity), the total flavonoid content in YCH increased. Meanwhile, under drought stress, phytosterols can act to regulate cell membrane fluidity and permeability, inhibit water loss and improve stress resistance [24,25]. Therefore, the increased accumulation of total flavonoids, total sterols, betaine, trigonelline and other secondary metabolites in wild YCH might be related to high-intensity drought stress.
    In this study, KEGG pathway enrichment analysis was performed on the metabolites that were found to be significantly different between the wild and cultivated YCH. The enriched metabolites included those involved in the pathways of ascorbate and aldarate metabolism, aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, histidine metabolism and beta-alanine metabolism. These metabolic pathways are closely related to plant stress resistance mechanisms. Among them, ascorbate metabolism plays an important role in plant antioxidant production, carbon and nitrogen metabolism, stress resistance and other physiological functions [26]; aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis is an important pathway for protein formation [27,28], which is involved in the synthesis of stress-resistant proteins. Both histidine and β-alanine pathways can enhance plant tolerance to environmental stress [29,30]. This further indicates that the differences in metabolites between the wild and cultivated YCH was closely related to the processes of stress resistance.
    Soil is the material basis for the growth and development of medicinal plants. Nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) in soil are important nutrient elements for the growth and development of plants. Soil organic matter also contains N, P, K, Zn, Ca, Mg and other macroelements and trace elements required for medicinal plants. Excessive or deficient nutrients, or unbalanced nutrient ratios, will affect the growth and development and the quality of medicinal materials, and different plants have different nutrient requirements [31,32,33]. For example, a low N stress promoted the synthesis of alkaloids in Isatis indigotica, and was beneficial to the accumulation of flavonoids in plants such as Tetrastigma hemsleyanum, Crataegus pinnatifida Bunge and Dichondra repens Forst. In contrast, too much N inhibited the accumulation of flavonoids in species such as Erigeron breviscapus, Abrus cantoniensis and Ginkgo biloba, and affected the quality of medicinal materials [34]. The application of P fertilizer was effective in increasing the content of glycyrrhizic acid and dihydroacetone in Ural licorice [35]. When the application amount exceeded 0·12 kg·m−2, the total flavonoid content in Tussilago farfara decreased [36]. The application of a P fertilizer had a negative effect on the content of polysaccharides in the traditional Chinese medicine rhizoma polygonati [37], but a K fertilizer was effective in increasing its content of saponins [38]. Applying 450 kg·hm−2 K fertilizer was the best for the growth and saponin accumulation of two-year-old Panax notoginseng [39]. Under the ratio of N:P:K = 2:2:1, the total amounts of hydrothermal extract, harpagide and harpagoside were the highest [40]. The high ratio of N, P and K was beneficial to promote the growth of Pogostemon cablin and increase the content of volatile oil. A low ratio of N, P and K increased the content of the main effective components of Pogostemon cablin stem leaf oil [41]. YCH is a barren-soil-tolerant plant, and it might have specific requirements for nutrients such as N, P and K. In this study, compared with the cultivated YCH, the soil of the wild YCH plants was relatively barren: the soil contents of organic matter, total N, total P and total K were about 1/10, 1/2, 1/3 and 1/3 those of the cultivated plants, respectively. Therefore, the differences in soil nutrients might be another reason for the differences between the metabolites detected in the cultivated and wild YCH. Weibao Ma et al. [42] found that the application of a certain amount of N fertilizer and P fertilizer significantly improved the yield and quality of seeds. However, the effect of nutrient elements on the quality of YCH is not clear, and fertilization measures to improve the quality of medicinal materials need further study.
    Chinese herbal medicines have the characteristics of “Favorable habitats promote yield, and unfavorable habitats improve quality” [43]. In the process of a gradual shift from wild to cultivated YCH, the habitat of the plants changed from the arid and barren desert steppe to fertile farmland with more abundant water. The habitat of the cultivated YCH is superior and the yield is higher, which is helpful to meet the market demand. However, this superior habitat led to significant changes in the metabolites of YCH; whether this is conducive to improving the quality of YCH and how to achieve a high-quality production of YCH through science-based cultivation measures will require further research.
    Simulative habitat cultivation is a method of simulating the habitat and environmental conditions of wild medicinal plants, based on knowledge of the long-term adaptation of the plants to specific environmental stresses [43]. By simulating various environmental factors that affect the wild plants, especially the original habitat of plants used as sources of authentic medicinal materials, the approach uses scientific design and innovative human intervention to balance the growth and secondary metabolism of Chinese medicinal plants [43]. The methods aims to achieve the optimal arrangements for the development of high-quality medicinal materials. Simulative habitat cultivation should provide an effective way for the high-quality production of YCH even when the pharmacodynamic basis, quality markers and response mechanisms to environmental factors are unclear. Accordingly, we suggest that scientific design and field management measures in the cultivation and production of YCH should be carried out with reference to the environmental characteristics of wild YCH, such as arid, barren and sandy soil conditions. At the same time, it is also hoped that researchers will conduct more in-depth research on the functional material basis and quality markers of YCH. These studies can provide more effective evaluation criteria for YCH, and promote the high-quality production and sustainable development of the industry.
  • Herbal Fructus Amomi oil Natural massage Diffusers 1kg Bulk Amomum villosum Essential oil

    Herbal Fructus Amomi oil Natural massage Diffusers 1kg Bulk Amomum villosum Essential oil

    The Zingiberaceae family has attracted increasing attention in allelopathic research because of the rich volatile oils and the aromaticity of its member species. Previous research had shown that the chemicals from Curcuma zedoaria (zedoary) [40], Alpinia zerumbet (Pers.) B.L.Burtt & R.M.Sm. [41] and Zingiber officinale Rosc. [42] of the ginger family have allelopathic effects on seed germination and seedling growth of maize, lettuce and tomato. Our current study is the first report on the allelopathic activity of volatiles from stems, leaves, and young fruits of A. villosum (a member of Zingiberaceae family). The oil yield of stems, leaves, and young fruits was 0.15%, 0.40%, and 0.50%, respectively, indicating that fruits produced a larger quantity of volatile oils than stems and leaves. The main components of volatile oils from stems were β-pinene, β-phellandrene and α-pinene, which was a pattern similar to that of the major chemicals of leaf oil, β-pinene and α-pinene (monoterpene hydrocarbons). On the other hand, the oil in young fruits was rich in bornyl acetate and camphor (oxygenated monoterpenes). The results were supported by the findings of Do N Dai [30,32] and Hui Ao [31] who had identified the oils from different organs of A. villosum.

    There have been several reports on the plant growth inhibitory activities of these main compounds in other species. Shalinder Kaur found that α-pinene from eucalyptus prominently suppressed root length and shoot height of Amaranthus viridis L. at 1.0 μL concentration [43], and another study showed that α-pinene inhibited early root growth and caused oxidative damage in root tissue through increased generation of reactive oxygen species [44]. Some reports have argued that β-pinene inhibited germination and seedling growth of test weeds in a dose-dependent response manner by disrupting membrane integrity [45], altering the plant biochemistry and enhancing the activities of peroxidases and polyphenol oxidases [46]. β-Phellandrene exhibited maximum inhibition to the germination and growth of Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp at a concentration of 600 ppm [47], whereas, at a concentration of 250 mg/m3, camphor suppressed the radicle and shoot growth of Lepidium sativum L. [48]. However, research reporting the allelopathic effect of bornyl acetate is scanty. In our study, the allelopathic effects of β-pinene, bornyl acetate and camphor on root length was weaker than for the volatile oils except for α-pinene, whereas leaf oil, rich in α-pinene, was also more phytotoxic than the corresponding volatile oils from the stems and fruits of A. villosum, both findings indicating that α-pinene might the important chemical for allelopathy by this species. At the same time, the results also implied that some compounds in the fruit oil that were not abundant might contribute to the production of the phytotoxic effect, a finding which needs further research in the future.
    Under normal conditions, the allelopathic effect of allelochemicals is species-specific. Jiang et al. found that essential oil produced by Artemisia sieversiana exerted a more potent effect on Amaranthus retroflexus L. than on Medicago sativa L., Poa annua L., and Pennisetum alopecuroides (L.) Spreng. [49]. In another study, the volatile oil of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. produced different degrees of phytotoxic effects on different plant species. Lolium multiflorum Lam. was the most sensitive acceptor species, hypocotyl and radicle growth being inhibited by 87.8% and 76.7%, respectively, at a dose of 1 μL/mL oils, but hypocotyl growth of cucumber seedlings was barely affected [20]. Our results also showed that there was a difference in sensitivity to A. villosum volatiles between L. sativa and L. perenne.
    The volatile compounds and essential oils of the same species can vary quantitatively and/or qualitatively because of growth conditions, plant parts and detection methods. For example, a report demonstrated that pyranoid (10.3%) and β-caryophyllene (6.6%) were the major compounds of the volatiles emitted from leaves of Sambucus nigra, whereas benzaldehyde (17.8%), α-bulnesene (16.6%) and tetracosane (11.5%) were abundant in the oils extracted from leaves [50]. In our study, volatile compounds released by the fresh plant materials had stronger allelopathic effects on the test plants than the extracted volatile oils, the differences in response being closely related to the differences in the allelochemicals present in the two preparations. The exact differences between volatile compounds and oils need to be further investigated in subsequent experiments.
    Differences in microbial diversity and microbial community structure in soil samples to which volatile oils had been added were related to competition among microorganisms as well as to any toxic effects and the duration of volatile oils in the soil. Vokou and Liotiri [51] found that the respective application of four essential oils (0.1 mL) to cultivated soil (150 g) activated respiration of the soil samples, even the oils differed in their chemical composition, suggesting that plant oils are used as a carbon and energy source by occurring soil microorganisms. Data obtained from the current study confirmed that the oils from the whole plant of A. villosum contributed to the obvious increase in the number of the soil fungal species by the 14th day after oil addition, indicating that the oil may provide the carbon source for more soil fungi. Another study reported a finding: soil microorganisms recovered their initial function and biomass after a temporary period of variation induced by the addition of Thymbra capitata L. (Cav) oil, but the oil at the highest dose (0.93 µL oil per gram of soil) did not allow soil microorganisms to recover the initial functionality [52]. In the current study, based on the microbiological analysis of the soil after being treated with different days and concentrations, we speculated that the soil bacterial community would recover after more days. In contrast, the fungal microbiota cannot return to its original state. The following results confirm this hypothesis: the distinct effect of high-concentration of the oil on the composition of soil fungal microbiome was revealed by principal co-ordinates analysis (PCoA), and the heatmap presentations confirmed again that the fungal community composition of the soil treated with 3.0 mg/mL oil (namely 0.375 mg oil per gram of soil) at the genus level differed considerably from the other treatments. Presently, the research about the effects of the addition of monoterpene hydrocarbons or oxygenated monoterpenes on soil microbial diversity and community structure is still scarce. A few studies reported that α-pinene increased soil microbial activity and relative abundance of Methylophilaceae (a group of methylotrophs, Proteobacteria) under low moisture content, playing an important role as a carbon source in drier soils [53]. Similarly, volatile oil of A. villosum whole plant, containing 15.03% α-pinene (Supplementary Table S1), obviously increased the relative abundance of Proteobacteria at 1.5 mg/mL and 3.0 mg/mL, which suggested that α-pinene possibly act as one of the carbon sources for soil microorganisms.
    The volatile compounds produced by different organs of A. villosum had various degrees of allelopathic effects on L. sativa and L. perenne, which was closely related to the chemical constituents that A. villosum plant parts contained. Although the chemical composition of the volatile oil was confirmed, the volatile compounds released by A. villosum at room temperature are unknown, which need the further investigation. Moreover, the synergistic effect between different allelochemicals is also worthy of consideration. In terms of soil microorganisms, to explore the effect of the volatile oil on soil microorganisms comprehensively, we still need to conduct more in-depth research: extend the treatment time of volatile oil and discern variations in chemical composition of the volatile oil in the soil on different days.
  • Pure Artemisia capillaris oil for candle and soap making wholesale diffuser essential oil new for reed burner diffusers

    Pure Artemisia capillaris oil for candle and soap making wholesale diffuser essential oil new for reed burner diffusers

    Rodent model design

    The animals were randomly divided into five groups of fifteen mice each. The control group and model group mice were gavaged with sesame oil for 6 days. Positive control group mice were gavaged with bifendate tablets (BT, 10 mg/kg) for 6 days. The experimental groups were treated with 100 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg AEO dissolved in sesame oil for 6 days. On day 6, the control group was treated with sesame oil, and all of the other groups were treated with a single dose of 0.2% CCl4 in sesame oil (10 ml/kg) by intraperitoneal injection. The mice were then fasted free of water, and blood samples were collected from the retrobulbar vessels; collected blood was centrifuged at 3000 × g for 10 min to separate the serum. Cervical dislocation was performed immediately after withdrawal of blood, and liver samples were promptly removed. One part of the liver sample was immediately stored at −20 °C until analysis, and another part was excised and fixed in a 10% formalin solution; the remaining tissues were stored at −80 °C for histopathological analysis (Wang et al., 2008Hsu et al., 2009Nie et al., 2015).

    Measurement of the biochemical parameters in the serum

    Liver injury was assessed by estimating the enzymatic activities of serum ALT and AST using the corresponding commercial kits according to the instructions for the kits (Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, China). The enzymatic activities were expressed as units per liter (U/l).

    Measurement of MDA, SOD, GSH and GSH-Px in liver homogenates

    Liver tissues were homogenized with cold physiological saline at a 1:9 ratio (w/v, liver:saline). The homogenates were centrifuged (2500 × g for 10 min) to collect the supernatants for the subsequent determinations. Liver damage was assessed according to the hepatic measurements of the MDA and GSH levels as well as the SOD and GSH-Px activities. All of these were determined following the instructions on the kit (Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, China). The results for MDA and GSH were expressed as nmol per mg protein (nmol/mg prot), and the activities of SOD and GSH-Px were expressed as U per mg protein (U/mg prot).

    Histopathological analysis

    Portions of freshly obtained liver were fixed in a 10% buffered paraformaldehyde phosphate solution. The sample was then embedded in paraffin, sliced into 3–5 μm sections, stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) according to a standard procedure, and finally analyzed by light microscopy (Tian et al., 2012).

    Statistical analysis

    The results were expressed as the mean ± standard deviation (SD). The results were analyzed using the statistical program SPSS Statistics, version 19.0. The data were subjected to an analysis of variance (ANOVA, p < 0.05) followed by Dunnett’s test and Dunnett’s T3 test to determine the statistically significant differences between the values of various experimental groups. A significant difference was considered at a level of p < 0.05.

    Results and discussion

    Constituents of AEO

    Upon GC/MS analysis, the AEO was found to contain 25 constituents eluted from 10 to 35 min, and 21 constituents accounting for 84% of the essential oil were identified (Table 1). The volatile oil contained monoterpenoids (80.9%), sesquiterpenoids (9.5%), saturated unbranched hydrocarbons (4.86%) and miscellaneous acetylene (4.86%). Compared with other studies (Guo et al., 2004), we found abundant monoterpenoids (80.90%) in the AEO. The results showed that the most abundant constituent of AEO is β-citronellol (16.23%). Other major components of AEO include 1,8-cineole (13.9%), camphor (12.59%), linalool (11.33%), α-pinene (7.21%), β-pinene (3.99%), thymol (3.22%), and myrcene (2.02%). The variation in the chemical composition may be related to the environmental conditions that the plant was exposed to, such as mineral water, sunlight, the stage of development and nutrition.

  • Pure Saposhnikovia divaricata oil for candle and soap making wholesale diffuser essential oil new for reed burner diffusers

    Pure Saposhnikovia divaricata oil for candle and soap making wholesale diffuser essential oil new for reed burner diffusers


    2.1. Preparation of SDE

    The rhizomes of SD were purchased as a dried herb from Hanherb Co. (Guri, Korea). The plant materials were confirmed taxonomically by Dr. Go-Ya Choi of the Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine (KIOM). A voucher specimen (number 2014 SDE-6) was deposited in the Korean Herbarium of Standard Herbal Resources. Dried rhizomes of SD (320 g) were extracted twice with 70% ethanol (with a 2 h reflux) and the extract was then concentrated under reduced pressure. The decoction was filtered, lyophilized, and stored at 4°C. The yield of dried extract from crude starting materials was 48.13% (w/w).


    2.2. Quantitative High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) Analysis

    Chromatographic analysis was performed with a HPLC system (Waters Co., Milford, MA, USA) and a photodiode array detector. For the HPLC analysis of SDE, the prim-O-glucosylcimifugin standard was purchased from the Korea Promotion Institute for Traditional Medicine Industry (Gyeongsan, Korea), and sec-O-glucosylhamaudol and 4′-O-β-D-glucosyl-5-O-methylvisamminol were isolated within our laboratory and identified by spectral analyses, primarily by NMR and MS.

    SDE samples (0.1 mg) were dissolved in 70% ethanol (10 mL). Chromatographic separation was performed with an XSelect HSS T3 C18 column (4.6 × 250 mm, 5 μm, Waters Co., Milford, MA, USA). The mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile (A) and 0.1% acetic acid in water (B) at a flow-rate of 1.0 mL/min. A multistep gradient program was used as follows: 5% A (0 min), 5–20% A (0–10 min), 20% A (10–23 min), and 20–65% A (23–40 min). The detection wavelength was scanned at 210–400 nm and recorded at 254 nm. The injection volume was 10.0 μL. Standard solutions for the determination of three chromones were prepared at a final concentration of 7.781 mg/mL (prim-O-glucosylcimifugin), 31.125 mg/mL (4′-O-β-D-glucosyl-5-O-methylvisamminol), and 31.125 mg/mL (sec-O-glucosylhamaudol) in methanol and kept at 4°C.

    2.3. Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory Activity In Vitro
    2.3.1. Cell Culture and Sample Treatment

    RAW 264.7 cells were obtained from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC, Manassas, VA, USA) and grown in DMEM medium containing 1% antibiotics and 5.5% FBS. Cells were incubated in a humidified atmosphere of 5% CO2 at 37°C. To stimulate the cells, the medium was replaced with fresh DMEM medium, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS, Sigma-Aldrich Chemical Co., St. Louis, MO, USA) at 1 μg/mL was added in the presence or absence of SDE (200 or 400 μg/mL) for an additional 24 h.

    2.3.2. Determination of Nitric Oxide (NO), Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α), and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) Production

    Cells were treated with SDE and stimulated with LPS for 24 h. NO production was analyzed by measuring nitrite using the Griess reagent according to a previous study [12]. Secretion of the inflammatory cytokines PGE2, TNF-α, and IL-6 was determined using an ELISA kit (R&D systems) according to manufacturer instructions. The effects of SDE on NO and cytokine production were determined at 540 nm or 450 nm using a Wallac EnVision microplate reader (PerkinElmer).

    2.4. Evaluation of Antiosteoarthritis Activity In Vivo
    2.4.1. Animals

    Male Sprague-Dawley rats (7 weeks old) were purchased from Samtako Inc. (Osan, Korea) and housed under controlled conditions with a 12-h light/dark cycle at °C and % humidity. Rats were provided with a laboratory diet and water ad libitum. All experimental procedures were performed in compliance with the National Institutes of Health (NIH) guidelines and approved by the Animal Care and Use Committee of the Daejeon university (Daejeon, republic of Korea).

    2.4.2. Induction of OA with MIA in Rats

    The animals were randomized and assigned to treatment groups before the initiation of the study ( per group). MIA solution (3 mg/50 μL of 0.9% saline) was directly injected into the intra-articular space of the right knee under anesthesia induced with a mixture of ketamine and xylazine. Rats were divided randomly into four groups: (1) the saline group with no MIA injection, (2) the MIA group with MIA injection, (3) the SDE-treated group (200 mg/kg) with MIA injection, and (4) the indomethacin- (IM-) treated group (2 mg/kg) with MIA injection. Rats were administered orally with SDE and IM 1 week before MIA injection for 4 weeks. The dosage of SDE and IM used in this study was based on those employed in previous studies [101314].

    2.4.3. Measurements of Hindpaw Weight-Bearing Distribution

    After OA induction, the original balance in weight-bearing capability of hindpaws was disrupted. An incapacitance tester (Linton instrumentation, Norfolk, UK) was used to evaluate changes in the weight-bearing tolerance. Rats were carefully placed into the measuring chamber. The weight-bearing force exerted by the hind limb was averaged over a 3 s period. The weight distribution ratio was calculated by the following equation: [weight on right hind limb/(weight on right hind limb + weight on left hind limb)] × 100 [15].

    2.4.4. Measurements of Serum Cytokine Levels

    The blood samples were centrifuged at 1,500 g for 10 min at 4°C; then the serum was collected and stored at −70°C until use. The levels of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and PGE2 in the serum were measured using ELISA kits from R&D Systems (Minneapolis, MN, USA) according to manufacturer instructions.

    2.4.5. Real-Time Quantitative RT-PCR Analysis

    Total RNA was extracted from knee joint tissue using the TRI reagent® (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA), reverse-transcribed into cDNA and PCR-amplified using a TM One Step RT PCR kit with SYBR green (Applied Biosystems, Grand Island, NY, USA). Real-time quantitative PCR was performed using the Applied Biosystems 7500 Real-Time PCR system (Applied Biosystems, Grand Island, NY, USA). The primer sequences and the probe-sequence are shown in Table 1. Aliquots of sample cDNAs and an equal amount of GAPDH cDNA were amplified with the TaqMan® Universal PCR master mixture containing DNA polymerase according to manufacturer instructions (Applied Biosystems, Foster, CA, USA). PCR conditions were 2 min at 50°C, 10 min at 94°C, 15 s at 95°C, and 1 min at 60°C for 40 cycles. The concentration of target gene was determined using the comparative Ct (threshold cycle number at cross-point between amplification plot and threshold) method, according to manufacturer instructions.

  • Pure Dalbergia Odoriferae Lignum  oil for candle and soap making wholesale diffuser essential oil new for reed burner diffusers

    Pure Dalbergia Odoriferae Lignum oil for candle and soap making wholesale diffuser essential oil new for reed burner diffusers

    The medicinal plant Dalbergia odorifera T. Chen species, also called Lignum Dalbergia odoriferae [1], belongs to genus Dalbergia, family Fabaceae (Leguminosae) [2]. This plant has been widely distributed in the tropical regions of Central and South America, Africa, Madagascar, and East and Southern Asia [13], especially in China [4]. D. odorifera species, which has been known as “Jiangxiang” in Chinese, “Kangjinhyang” in Korean, and “Koshinko” in Japanese drugs, has been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes, blood disorders, ischemia, swelling, necrosis, rheumatic pain, and so on [57]. Particularly, from Chinese herbal preparations, heartwood was found and has been commonly employed as a part of commercial drug mixtures for cardiovascular treatments, including Qi-Shen-Yi-Qi decoction, Guanxin-Danshen pills, and Danshen injection [56811]. As many other Dalbergia species, phytochemical investigations demonstrated the occurrence of the predominant flavonoid, phenol, and sesquiterpene derivatives in various parts of this plant, especially in terms of heartwood [12]. Furthermore, a number of bioactive reports on cytotoxic, antibacterial, antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic, antiosteosarcoma, antiosteoporosis, and vasorelaxant activities and alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activities indicate that both D. odorifera crude extracts and its secondary metabolites are valuable resources for new drugs development. However, no evidence was reported for the general view about this plant. In this review, we give an overview of the major chemical components and biological evaluations. This review would make a contribution to the understanding of the traditional values of D. odorifera and other related species, and it provides necessary guidelines for future researches.

  • Wholesale Pure Natural Atractylodes Lancea Oil for Daily Chemical Industry Herb Extract Atractylis Oil

    Wholesale Pure Natural Atractylodes Lancea Oil for Daily Chemical Industry Herb Extract Atractylis Oil

    CONDITIONS OF USE AND IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This information is meant to supplement, not replace advice from your doctor or healthcare provider and is not meant to cover all possible uses, precautions, interactions or adverse effects. This information may not fit your specific health circumstances. Never delay or disregard seeking professional medical advice from your doctor or other qualified health care provider because of something you have read on WebMD. You should always speak with your doctor or health care professional before you start, stop, or change any prescribed part of your health care plan or treatment and to determine what course of therapy is right for you.

    This copyrighted material is provided by Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Consumer Version. Information from this source is evidence-based and objective, and without commercial influence. For professional medical information on natural medicines, see Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Professional Version.

123456 Next > >> Page 1 / 57